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Johnstone, B., 2017. This article focuses on discourse analysis. Discourse analysis But first it’s important to understand why language is so important; it is much more than just a method of communication. Each of these different spheres, or discourse layers (Jäger 2004: 163), is interesting in its own right, but they also influence each other. Are you mainly interested in the discussions of politicians? Eine Einführung. Just take a look at the two very different word clouds below that I created as part of my own research on Digital Nationalism in China, using a handy visualization tool called Tagxedo. Hi Florian, How do they speak and write about it? I’m designing a critical discourse analysis of mental disabilities in one Hollywood movie. That, at least, would be my take on this distinction. In discourse analysis, interview data are analyzed at a macrosociologic level, as social texts. How can we start examining complex qualitative data from many voices from a point of view of discourse? Thanks a lot for this. But a more detailed, critical and contextual examination of the discourse might show that nurses struggle with out-moded power dynamics in hospitals (eg Fealy and McNamara 2007, Turner et al 2007). However, we probably still want to trawl through the whole text to look at different phrases that are used, and why ‘stat!’ was not the command in all situations. Like with any type of research, a good discourse analysis starts with the right question. I hope this helps! A good research question, on the other hand, would be what position the South Korean President Park Geun-hye voiced towards North Korea during the 2013 crisis between the two states. Firstly, when talking to the patient, the doctor doesn’t use any medical terminology, and uses calming and minimising language to comfort the patient. This would probably be more like a basic linguistic analysis, possibly even quantitative. Thank you for your answer in advance. A Foucauldian notion of discourse (1) holds that: discourse is a culturally constructed representation of reality, not an exact copy discourse constructs knowledge and thus governs, through the production of categories of knowledge and assemblages of texts, what it is possible to talk about and what is not (the taken for granted rules of inclusion/exclusion). How we understand terms like ‘fake news’ or ‘immigration’ or ‘freedom’ tells us a lot, not just about the times we live in or the people using those terms, but groups that have power to change the discourse on such issues. “Situated meanings arise because particular language forms take on specific or situated meanings in specific different contexts of use” (p. 65). This makes it a very rich avenue for analysis. Does this make sense? It is very contextually dependent, none of the phrases or manners are likely to be adopted by the doctor in the supermarket or at home. Here’s the link: http://www.politicseastasia.com/studying/an-introduction-to-visual-communication-analysis/ Qualitative research often focuses on what people say: be that in interviews, focus-groups, diaries, social media or documents. ,   qualitative Thank you, man! Florian. The latter method seems to be particularly big at Scandinavian universities (in the academic field “history of ideas”). The doctor attending says three things: To Patient: “We’re just going to give you a little injection to help with the pain.”, To Nurse: “10cc’s of sodium pentothal, stat!”, To Surgeon: “We’ve got severe second-degree chemical burns, GA administered”. As you are get ready to launch into your materials, you may find the following step-by-step guide useful on how to conduct a discourse analysis, as well as the following advice on how to work with Chinese, Japanese, and Korean textual sources. Understanding Critical Discourse Analysis in Qualitative Research International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE) Page 106 discourse analysis is necessary for describing, interpreting, analysing and critiquing social life reflected in text. In this situation, the doctor has said essentially the same thing 3 times, but each time using a different response for each recipient. A good analysis should explain what texts you used, where they came from, and why you chose them. But discourse analysis is often comparative, it lends itself to differences in the use of language between individuals, professionals and contexts. Discourse analysis has proved a popular methodology for knowledge organization domain analysis. In short: define what topic you will analyse, and note down which various discourse strands you think might be important in that regards. Concerned with the creation of meaning through talk and texts, discourse analysis provides insights into the way language works to help “shape and reproduce social meanings and forms of knowledge” (Tonkiss, 2012, p. 403). How did these statements draw from assumptions, beliefs, and arguments that have their roots in the discourse strand on national security, on health, or on any number of other such themes? I could imagine a discourse analysis for the kind of project you have in mind, but it’s not a prerequisite, I would say. You’ll likely need to transcribe the speeches (so: write up what people are saying in order for you to have a digital, written version of the texts that you can then analyse), but whether you want to include all verbal elements of the speeches (e.g. It depends where your interests lie. This is a very good question. Pick your materials based on your questions, not the other way around. So a discourse analyst, working with the same question, would ask: who exactly were Plato, Kant, Marx, Saussure, and Wittgenstein? What kind of statements did this lead to? Who we are, what we do, and our beliefs are all shaped by the language we use. Tracing how ideas travel between these layers through communication can be a rewarding analysis. thank you so much. It’s a barked command, finished with the term ‘stat!’ - a commonly used medial slang word (actually from the Latin word ‘statum’ meaning immediately, that’s your linguistic analysis!). Does it touch other wires? Wiley, Chichester. Hi Uzma, Sage, London. Florian. Wiley, London. i am going to do my thesis on critical discourse analysis of a politician’s speech! Tannen, D., Hamilton, H., Schiffrin, D. 2015. Essentially this is the how discourse analysis (DA) can be used to examine qualitative data. What makes a discourse analysis about ‘discourse’ is ultimately your theoretical commitment to the idea that texts and social processes are connected (usually by the ways in which power and knowledge interact through language). They may also draw on narrative and thematic analysis. Develop research questions and protocols for analysing discourses and discursive practices Identify different techniques of gathering discursive data for micro, meso and/or macro levels of analysis Select appropriate venues for sharing and distributing the results of research studies that use discourse analysis But ‘deep’ critical discourse analysis also draws heavily from Foucault and an examination of how language is a result of power dynamics, and that the discourse of society heavily regulates what words are understood to mean, as well as who can use them. Before you pick your sources, and decide what tools to use on them, ask yourself: what is my concern? (2008) is a nice short, practical overview to start your journey. Do you want to explore how specific political actors made sense of a crisis event? I will first discuss what is a good research question for a discourse analysis, and will then go over some of the fundamental issues you might want to settle before starting your project. It allows us to engage in actions and activities. Let me know if you have a different understanding of the two approaches. I’m mainly focused on the communicative part of it. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. The answer to your question depends a bit on what you want the focus of your analysis to be. You can then collect all intervals that discuss the topic you want to analyse and then transliterate those parts. phrases like “uhm”, “oh”) and mark all phonetic aspects (pauses in the speech, intonation, and so on) will hinge on the level of detail you plan to go into. On the other hand, if you are not interested in these discursive mechanisms, then you could simply use similar materials to map out how the collaboration works and what its effects are. Chapter 5 looks like it might be up your alley. I will first discuss what is a good research question for a discourse analysis, and will then go over some of the fundamental issues you might want to settle before starting your project. Chilton, Paul (2004). You already make this clear: ‘all the visuals’ indeed count as text, and so does the soundtrack, the dynamics, as well as any other element of visual communication that contributes to the discourse. First of all thank you for creating such a easy to follow blog on discourse analysis! Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). For example, it can be revealing to look at how some people use a particular word, or terms from a particular local dialect. The idea is that such strands are intertwined, and that it can be helpful to explore not only what statements people make within one strand (Jäger calls such statements discourse fragments), but also to explore how one strand relates to others. That discourse is also governed by specific conventions, but they differ from those that apply in news discourse. If you are looking at one source, for instance a speech, a journalistic article, or a constitution, then your main concern will be with the kinds of discursive statements that this text makes, and the manner in which it makes them. Download a free trial, or read more about it here. You research politics and are interested in political communication? please elaborate if it will do. If someone says ‘now please’ or ‘as soon as you can’ it has a very different meaning and power dynamic, so we are not interested in synonyms here. Foucault, Michel (2005/1989). Paltridge, B., 2012. This question is too broad, not to mention that it assumes we can find out what a large group of people actually think. Hi there! Schöne Grüße aus London, Hi Carolin, It can also be interesting to look at non-verbal communication: people’s facial expressions and hand movements are an important part of the context of what people say. Imagine the following scenario from your favourite fictional medical drama. If you haven’t checked it out yet, see my post on discourse theory for a discussion: http://www.politicseastasia.com/studying/getting-the-hang-of-discourse-theory/. When it comes to analysing the data I’m not sure how to categorise the data. This may be a legitimate way to produce a review of the relevant sources, but is it an actual analysis? If you are looking for something more analytical, I usually use NVivo, but that’s not a free programme. All these are objects of discourse analysis like writing, and communication are defined concerning rational sequences. It’s definitely possible to use discourse analysis to analyse spoken words in TV, film, or radio shows, but you are right: you would need to transcribe a lot of what is being said. If that’s not what you are after (as in: if you are more interested in the visual discourse than in what is being said, linguistically), you could always try a visual communication analysis. Gergen, K. J., 2015, An invitation to Social Construction. I belief it's a good method for your question. Types of discourse analysis. But there is another ‘level’ of critical discourse analysis, influenced by Foucault (1972, 1980) and others, that goes beyond reasons for use and local context, to examine how thought processes in society influenced by the control of language and meanings. (as you did in the case of H. Clinton’s discourse). Much of politics is expressed through texts, and closely examining both written and spoken language can provide useful insights into the political position of actors or the rhetoric that informs an argument. Gee refers to tools of inquiry as thinking devices. I am making presentation on this theme but didn’t understand in detail. so clearly and neatly explained. In a case like that, I would use interviews and any publications or documents that the various groups and players produce, and I would indeed give a discourse analysis a go. I am tempted to give you a similar answer to the one I just gave Adriano (see above). I personally use such quantitative analyses as a starting point: they can reveal regularities or irregularities across vast amounts of data, and can highlight which specific parts of the text corpus might then lend themselves to a detailed qualitative analysis. For instance, news discourse would be one such layer: it is governed by particular scripts, specific power relations, habits and conventions, jargon, etc. These individual wires are the discourse strands, and the wire bundle is the discourse in its entirety. A ‘layer’ is just the academic way of saying that discourses take place in different context or in different kind of places. Glad to hear that, Isabel. Does this help with your question? Hi Katie, Gee, J., P., 2011. Thanks for the kind words. Once you have developed your question, select a range of material that is appropriate to answer it. I believe that an analysis has to be more systematic than this. If you are interviewing stakeholders or people affected by these collaborations, then you could indeed ask how they make sense of that sort of cooperation. It may be that there has never been an age when so much power to manipulate discourse is concentrated in so few places, and able to shift it so rapidly. Sorry for the late reply! Does this make sense ? The objects of discourse analysis (discourse, writing, conversation, communicative event) are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech, or turns-at-talk. Form = “morphemes, words, phrases, or other syntactic structures” (p. 64). If you are looking for a tool to help your qualitative discourse analysis, why not give Quirkos a try? 4th ed., Münster: UNRAST-Verlag. Could you clarify them? i just want to ask how should i turn his oral speech into written data? That depends on your project, but in principle: yes. Think of discourse for a moment as a bundle of intertwined wires, each with a different colour, that cross and twist as they stretch forward. In discourse analysis, the context of a conversation is taken into account as well as what's being said. In other words: the social context and the question of how power works through the construction of knowledge are central to discourse analysis, whereas I suspect that most scholars of ‘Begriffsgeschichte’ would focus more strongly on text-immanent meanings and their evolution rather than on such socio-linguistic concerns. Post Archive. Think of the use of the term ‘freedom’ in mainstream and political discourse in the United States. What you write so far sounds like you nevertheless have a good grip on your project. And: how did their theories translate into practices, for instance by shaping education policy, scientific agendas, political institutions, art and media, and so on? KATHERINE REHNER [continued]: Discourse analysis can be used to answer a wide variety of types of research questions, in keeping with the diverse group of goals we looked at earlier. Chapter 5 looks like it might be up your alley this claim its. 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